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Clubfoot- Diagnosis and Treatment for Babies

Table of Contents


Clubfoot (Genu Varus) is seen in children and adults for various reasons; Therefore, it is impossible to specify a certain age as the age of clubfoot.

Of course, babies are more likely to get this disease because of how their feet are placed in the mother’s womb. The cause of people suffering from this disease can be congenital, growth (such as abnormal bone growth), or trauma, which we will explain more about its causes in the following sections.

Also, this article will tell you which doctor to go to treat bent legs and what diseases threaten the patient’s health if this problem is not treated.

Undoubtedly, clubfoot is one of the most common joint complications. A bone complication that is influenced by many factors, but without a doubt, it is always one of the main reasons for the change of state in people’s organs.

A condition in which people, standing in a normal position, see a considerable distance between their knees. A noticeable space can be seen even though the ankles are glued together.

Interestingly, the most critical factor in naming this condition as a bracket foot is how the feet are placed in an arched position. A condition that is undoubtedly the first influential factor in its occurrence is the narrowness of the baby’s space and the lack of sufficient space in the mother’s womb.

But have you ever been asked the question of what is the cause of braces?
In this topic, we intend to accompany you in finding a suitable answer to this question with a comprehensive and comprehensive look. So stay with us!

Symptoms of clubfoot

The most important symptom of this disease is that the legs bend outwards. This symptom is seen when the patient walks or puts his ankles together. Also, some people with this disease walk with their toes inwards. Such a situation is called a pigeon finger. Other symptoms of this disease include:

  • The lack of contact of the knees when the person has placed his ankles next to each other.
  • The legs have a shape similar to brackets or bows and have not yet taken the correct shape after 3 years of age.
  • Knee or hip pain
  • feeling exhausted
  • Decreased range of motion in the pelvis
  • Difficulty walking or running
  • Imbalance in walking
  • Knee instability
  • Progressive arthritis in adulthood

What is The Cause of Clubfoot?

As we mentioned earlier, the cause of clubfoot can be caused by numerous factors. Effective factors, among the most important of which, the following can be mentioned:

  • Lack of coordination and harmony on the children’s development page
  • Muscle weakness
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Rheumatic disease
  • Bone fracture
  • Rickets (softness of the bones)
  • Turning the legs inwards
  • Excessive use of diapers during infancy
  • Overweight and obesity in children
  • Bad sitting and bad standing
  • Weakness or shortness of the hamstring muscle
  • Obesity and excess weight
  • Excessive use of diapers in infants and children
  • Paget’s disease
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Reduction of minerals needed in the body

Appropriate Ways to Diagnose Clubfoot Disease

As we mentioned before, a bracket foot is a bone complication that causes a disorder in the positioning of the legs, leading to an arched and bracketed position. Therefore, the initial diagnosis of this complication is not very difficult.

One of the first and most effective steps in the diagnosis of club foot disease is gluing the ankles together while standing. In this case, it is enough to avoid contracting the muscles and only measure the distance created between your knees.

Then look at your feet in the mirror. If the distance measured is more than normal and the legs are arched and arched in the mirror, it is obvious that the person is suffering from the condition of the arched leg and should see a doctor as soon as possible.

Because although clubfoot disorder does not have many risks like other disorders, it is interesting to know that this bone disorder also has countless complications. Side effects that we will discuss further.

Diagnosis of clubfoot

To diagnose clubfoot at home, stand and place your ankles next to each other. If the knees do not touch each other and a shape like a bow can be seen between the two legs, you have clubfoot disease.
Most likely, the clubfoot is symmetrical. Sometimes it is impossible to diagnose at home; Therefore, it is better to go to the orthopedist’s office and leave the diagnosis of this disease to him.

The doctor diagnoses the degree of this disease by examining the location of the legs, knees, and wrists and measuring the distance between the knees with a meter or ruler.
It also rotates the patient’s knee in different directions and examines the spine and pelvis. For the doctor to obtain accurate results using the clubfoot measurement method, the patient should not contract his thigh muscles.
It is also better to take off your shoes and socks.

X-ray photography is another method of diagnosing this disease in adults. In the X-ray image or EOS, you can see from the hip to the ankle.
This image helps the orthopedic doctor to determine the location and magnitude of the deformity. Also, genetic tests, urine tests, and blood tests can help the doctor in diagnosing this disease.
The bone densitometry test is another diagnostic method.

Complications and problems with Clubfoot

If clubfoot is not treated, sufferers may experience pain, increased deformity, increased knee instability, and knee degeneration (knee osteoarthritis).
Over time, a person will face the following complications:

  • Fracture and deformity: The possibility of breaking the bones of people with this disease is more than others. Also, clubfoot affects the patient’s ability to walk.
  • Arthritis: A person may get this disease due to increased pressure on the joints. Most people get arthritis after the age of 40 or 50, But people who have clubfoot will develop arthritis before the age of 40.
  • Heart failure: clubfoot disease may cause the heart to pump more blood to affected parts of the body; Therefore, if you had heart disease before, not treating clubfoot will lead to heart failure.
  • Bone cancer: the probability of this type of cancer is very low. 1% of people with Paget’s disease have bone cancer.
  • The patient may have problems bowing.
  • Joints will become more vulnerable.
  • Clubfoot makes a person shorter.
  • The person’s spine may deviate.
  • Chronic back pain is another complication of clubfoot in adulthood.
  • If only one leg is bowed, the size of the leg may also change.
  • A person will be ridiculed for her crooked and misshapen legs and her self-confidence will decrease.

What Are The Most Important Side Effects of Braces?

  • The development of early arthritis
  • Deformation in the structure of the legs and an unpleasant appearance
  • High pressure on the inner surface of the knee joint and severe pain
  • Stretching of the soft tissues in the inner part of the knee and severe pain
  • Movement and sports restrictions

The Best Age to Treat Clubfoot!

Although we have already mentioned the occurrence and formation of clubfoot disease in childhood and the fetal growth of babies, have you ever been asked the question of when is the best and most appropriate time to treat clubfoot?

It is interesting to know that the most appropriate age for the treatment of club feet is before the age of 3 years. Children are more flexible at a young age. Optimum flexibility leads to speeding up the treatment process and, as a result, easier recovery from this condition. Problem is that if you postpone its treatment to older age, not only will not have the desired effect but also requires constant and intensive exercises.

Therefore, in this article, we intend to accompany you in the treatment of this bone complication by providing effective and at the same time standard exercises.

Clubfoot degrees

The degrees of clubfoot is severe, moderate, and mild clubfoot. Sometimes it is not possible to detect mild clubfoot at home and only an orthopedic specialist can diagnose it. The severe degree of this disease can be recognized at a first glance even at a distance of several meters. It is better to know, healthy legs also curve outward, but this curvature is only three to six degrees. If the curvature is more than this, the person’s legs appear bow-shaped.


What Is The Best Treatment for Clubfoot?

As we mentioned earlier, the most important and effective solution in the treatment of clubfoot is to perform sports and purposeful movements.

Movements that can be used by all people due to the lack of age restrictions. Among the most effective corrective and sports movements, the following can be mentioned!

Squat next to The Wall with The Ball

To perform this exercise and corrective movement, just place a volleyball or soccer ball between your legs and then lean against the wall. Of course, remember that your feet should be 25 cm away from the wall.

Hold the ball between your knees and then lower your upper body until your thighs are parallel to the floor. Maintain the pose for 3 seconds and then return to the starting position.

Practice this corrective movement 1 or 2 times a week in 3 sets of 12. This type of squat will have a very positive effect on correcting knee braces by using the proximal muscles.

Bring The Feet closer to each other on The Floor

In this method, it is enough to place a volleyball or soccer ball between your ankles and press the ankles towards each other for 10 seconds and then rest for 10 seconds. This corrective movement is done daily and without restrictions.

Bringing The Legs together in a Sitting Position

To perform this corrective exercise, it is enough to first keep your back straight and press the soles of your feet together for 30 seconds. Then try to put pressure on the soles of your feet and also bring your knees closer to the ground.

By doing this corrective movement regularly, you create a noticeable stretch in the groin adductor muscles and the knee support muscles. A stretch that increases the flexibility of these muscles.

Non-Surgical Treatment of Clubfoot in Adults with The Help of Exercise

If you have braces, you should always keep your weight in balance; Exercising is one of the activities that, in addition to strengthening the knee muscles, is also very useful in maintaining fitness.

Losing weight and staying fit will prevent additional stress on the knee, thus preventing the patient’s condition from worsening.

Another use of exercise to treat clubfoot in adults is to improve the shape of the legs. If the problem with the bracket leg is minor; Knee and leg strengthening exercises can help correct them and improve the condition.

Cycling, swimming and walking are among the sports that are very effective in strengthening and treating clubfoot in adults.

Taking Essential Bone Supplements

If the cause of club foot is due to the lack of essential vitamins in the body, then the orthopedic surgeon prescribes some special medicines and food supplements for the bone along with prescribing sports exercises for club feet.

Supplements containing calcium, vitamin D and vitamin C are among the supplements that are prescribed for the non-surgical treatment of clubfoot in adults.

Having a Proper Diet to Strengthen Bones

A patient with clubfoot should pay attention not to neglect the consumption of healthy foods in addition to doing sports and taking food supplements. Useful and healthy foods prevent the occurrence of clubfoot complications in adults and are very effective in maintaining knee health by strengthening the knees.

Among the useful foods that are prescribed to strengthen bones include:

  • Fruits and vegetables rich in fatty acids or omega-3
  • Eating a variety of foods rich in protein
  • Consumption of anti-inflammatory foods such as ginger and turmeric spices

Using Special Shoes for Braces

One of the most effective non-surgical treatment methods for clubfoot in adults is the prescription of insoles and medical shoes, which are very helpful in relieving pressure from the knees.

Also, these shoes, with the effect they have on the correct distribution of pressure on the knee, make it easier for a person to stand and walk while walking and standing.

How to prevent clubfoot (Genu Varus)

There is no sure way to prevent the disease. In some cases, you may be able to prevent conditions that increase your risk of developing the disease.
For example, make sure you get enough vitamin D and eat a healthy diet. It is better to know that if you are deficient in vitamin D, you are more likely to develop osteoporosis than other people. Osteoporosis will lead to bent legs; Therefore, by preventing osteoporosis, you can also prevent bowed legs.

By doing some simple things, you can prevent severe degrees of this disease. For example, practice sitting properly.
Eat vegetables and fruits and exercise. Use medical pads and make sure you buy standard running and walking shoes. If you are overweight, definitely try to get closer to your ideal weight.

Which doctor should we see for Clubfoot?

An orthopedic doctor can measure the deviation of the knees and find the reason for bending your legs. He can also treat your club feet by prescribing vitamin D, knee clubfoot, medical insoles, or osteotomy surgery.
At first, the doctor will recommend the first three mentioned methods or other methods.
If these methods fail to cure your Clubfoot, he will recommend osteotomy surgery. Remember, the sooner you diagnose this disease, the less time it will take to treat it.

Sometimes, it is not possible to fix Clubfoot without surgery. Deviation to the outside of the legs is a structural deviation.
Exercise, physiotherapy, and vitamins only make your muscles and bones stronger and do not affect the bone shape. The only way to change the shape of the legs is to cut the bone and flatten it.
This method is the same as osteotomy surgery. If your foot bends are severe, osteotomy surgery is the only treatment for you.

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