Lateral Elbow Pain
The proximal end of the ulna is called the olecranon. The lateral Epicondyle provides attachment to the extensor muscles of the rest.
The extensor muscles of the forearm are responsible for the extension of the wrist.
Tennis elbow we call it lateral Epicondylitis due to injury of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis. Tennis elbow is an inflammation, soreness, or pain on the outside (lateral) area near the elbow. the injury is usually seen in patients who perform manual labour or sports that require twisting and extension of the wrist against resistance. This pain with resisted wrist extension. all that work airs from degeneration, irritation tears and pain of the extensor tendons.
Differential Diagnosis - Radial Tunnel Syndrome
in case of the lateral elbow pain, the pain of radial tunnel syndrome is very similar to the symptoms of the tennis elbow. it is on the outer side of the elbow.
The pain of the radial tunnel syndrome is usually distal to the lateral epicondyle and radiates down the forearm. If the symptoms of tennis elbow are not going away with treatment, rule out the possibility of radial tunnel syndrome.
Treatment includes a variety of options:
- elbow pad
- decrease activity
- eccentric exercises
- injection(steroids or PRP)
- surgery (as a last resort)
Anterior Elbow Pain
Biceps Tendon Rupture
the biceps muscle inserts into the radial Tuberosity below the elbow.
The biceps muscle aids in flexion and supination of the forearm.
Biceps Tendon Rupture
The muscle retracts up this pain, bruising, swelling located in front of the elbow. Injury is found in a patient who performs manual labour, bodybuilders, etc. Rupture may retract the muscle causing the “Popeye” sign.
Rupture affects 40% of the supination of the forearm and the tendon needs to be reattached to the tuberosity of the radius.
Elbow injuries can lead to loss of cartilage and joint degeneration due to the extra wear and tear on the surface of the joint. The patient has global pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. This condition is called osteoarthritis, degenerative arthritis, or posttraumatic arthritis.
- surgery (rarely )
The cartilage of the knee is complex and is made of an elastic compressive structure.
Medial Elbow Pain
On the medial side you find the Medial Epicondyle the under nerve and the ulnar collateral ligament also you find the flexor muscle group.
The flexors muscles of the forearm are responsible for flexion of the wrist.
we call it medial epicondylitis. It occurs due to injury and degeneration of the flexor muscle group. The golfer’s elbow is an inflammation, soreness, or pain on the inside(medial) area near the elbow. This pain is due to repetitive overuse or overload activities and is aggravated by movement of the wrist.
Treatment of medial epicondylitis includes:
- Decrease activity
- eccentric exercises
- Injections (steroids or PRP)
- Surgery (as a last resort)
It is inflammation of a small sac of fluid located on the tip of the elbow. This bursa allows the elbow to bend and straighten freely underneath the skin but can become irritated with repetitive movement.
treatment usually conservative and rarely surgery.
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Cubital tunnel syndrome due to compression of the ulnar nerve at the area of the medial (inside)elbow resulting in pain, swelling, and weakness of the hand. The problem occurs due to compression where the ulnar nerve passes around the elbow through the cubital tunnel.
Conservative treatment first then surgery if conservative treatment fails.
Medial (ulnar) Collateral Ligament Injury
Injury typically in throwing sports such as baseball has seen in pitching (Tommy john injury). It can lead to chronic pain as well as valgus instability and can be potentially disabling.
- stop throwing physical therapy
- evaluation with x-rays or MRI
- injury may need reconstruction which is successful but takes a long time to restore the function.
Posterior Elbow Pain
You can see the triceps muscle is attached to the olecranon Posterior Impingement Syndrome
it is a valgus extension overload. extension overload and valgus stress can result in injury of the posterior part of the elbow. the athletes present with posterior elbow pain that worsens when the elbow is extended with loss of velocity and control.
Athletes may experience catching, locking, clicking and stiffness.
Athletes may experience catching, locking, clicking and stiffness. With the repeated forced extension of the elbow, the tip of the olecranon is jammed into the fossa at the back of the elbow causing inflammation, cartilage injury, loose fragments and bony spurs.
- Treatment is Conservative
- Rarely Surgery